This is the first exorcism story in Mark’s gospel. Jesus encounters a man who is possessed by a demon in the synagogue and he casts the demon out. Talking about demons and the demonic is tricky business today. I’m sure as soon as I mention the word demon some images come to mind. We’ve all seen the cartoons of an angel on one shoulder and a demon on the other. Perhaps we’ve read fantasy books or watched movies that featured some sort of demonic characters. Talking about demons is also tricky because many fundamentalist and pentecostal Christians think and talk about demons in a very literal way. When I was in college there was a pretty popular book by Frank Peretti called This Present Darkness. I never read it, but one reviewer said of it, “Nearly every page of the book describes sulfur-breathing, black-winged, slobbering demons battling with tall, handsome, angelic warriors on a level of reality that is just beyond the senses.” I remember a young woman in the Christian Fellowship with which I was involved read the book. She started seeing all of these demons that were just beyond our senses. She even saw demons in our church. She decided the pastor himself had a demon lording over him.
So understandings of the demonic can range from the silly to the absurd and can even sometimes be quite dangerous. But there have been some theologians who have argued that we can’t altogether abandon the language of the demonic. Daniel Day Williams argued that demons are not “supernatural beings flying about the world at the command of an archfiend.” Rather, the demonic refers to evil structures that emerge in society and in history. Following Paul Tillich, Williams defines the demonic as “the meaning-destroying eruption of power that splits the personality and that fastens itself upon a society in such a way that freedom begins to be lost.” Williams identifies five structures of the demonic that will help us understand what he means.
“The first is fascination. The demonic quickens interest and excitement.” A boring demon is no demon at all. The demonic draws us in. It demands our attention. It captivates us. I’m always amazed when I see footage of the Nazi rallies in Germany. People would line the streets ten and fifteen rows deep to watch the German army and the Fuhrer on parade. As Hitler took the podium, thousands of hands would fling into the air in salute; “Sich heil!” And then Hitler would begin to speak with sharp rhetoric and strident tone to which the crowd would answer in thunderous applause. Now remember, these were an educated people – a cultured people. But the demonic captivated them – fascinated them.
Secondly, the demonic begins to distort our perception. Demons tell lies that pass as truth. Their rhetoric infests our culture and we begin to see things differently, sometimes even against our own better judgment. Think for a minute at how well our culture has shaped us into consumers and materialists. The constant bombardment of advertising of products and services leads us to believe the lie that these things can make us happy. We come to believe that we are indeed homo economicus – that stuff, a healthy economy, a leisurely life are the keys to happiness. We begin to believe this so deeply that we even forget to question it. These lies become the water in which we swim.
“The third characteristic face of the demonic is aggrandizement. The demonic ecstasy feeds upon itself and demands more and more.” The leader becomes a tyrant. The tyrant sees himself as the savior. Before long, everyone regards him as not much lower than God.
The fourth structure is what Williams calls “the inertia of established systems of control.” We start to think that it’s always been this way. We start to think that resisting the power of the demonic would be futile. What is, just is and always will be.
I’ve been thinking and writing about peace lately. And the main thing that I’m trying to argue is that peace is possible. It’s not probable when we look at where we are today. It’s certainly not immanent. But can we at least agree that it is possible? If not, how will we ever get there? I believe it’s a demonic lie that violence and war are inevitable. Our perception has been distorted and so we think that war has always been and will always be. The inertia of war has taken hold.
The final characteristic of the demonic is that there is a depth to it. I said earlier that the demonic is never boring. It’s also never banal. The demonic speaks in a distorted way to the very core of our being. It lures us in with promises of security, or happiness, or power. Remember how the demon tempted Jesus in the desert. His offers were not trivial. He offered bread when Jesus was hungry. He tempted him with power and riches. The demonic speaks to our deepest needs and desires offering treasures that are ultimately destructive.
Now, in our story, the demons clearly stand for the scribes and the temple leaders. Mark artfully parallels the contrast of Jesus with the scribes and the confrontation with the demonic. It’s Jesus’ authority vs. the scribes’ authority – holy authority vs. evil authority.
As soon as Jesus started to speak in the synagogue, the people recognized that he had a special authority. They were astounded for he taught as one having authority. But they also recognized immediately that his authority was very different from the scribes. Now, to be sure, the scribes had some kind of authority. First, they had the authority of the word. They were the ones who could read and write. They were the ones who knew what the holy books said. They had the authority of the books. They also had the authority of position. They were connected. The scribes were connected with the high priests who were supposed to be the most connected to God. And if that’s not enough, they also had connections with the Romans. If the temple authorities turned you into the Roman authorities, then you were in real trouble as we find out at the end of the book. But even though the scribes seem to have all of this authority, as soon as Jesus speaks, the people recognize him as the authority and contrast him with the scribes.
But notice too that as soon as the people recognized Jesus’ authority something else happens. Immediately a man with an unclean spirit cries out to him. The demon says, “I know who you are, the Holy One of God.” The demon recognizes Jesus immediately. AND as soon as the people recognize Jesus’ authority they also recognize the demon. There was no mention of the demon before Jesus’ authority came into play, but as soon as Jesus’ authority is evidenced, then, immediately we know about the man with the unclean spirit. Jesus’ authority shows the demons for what they are. Finally, Jesus evidences his authority fully as he rebukes and casts out the demon. And the people were again amazed. They could sense that there was something deep within this man that made his teaching different. It was a new teaching – with authority.
Mohandas Gandhi, the great liberator of India, also had and taught this kind of deep spiritual authority. He called it satyagraha, or soul force. We might also translate it soul authority or soul power. He told the Indian people that if they wanted to be free from British imperialism then they first had to be free in their minds and hearts. When they were free in their minds and hearts, then they could begin to act as if they were free. And once they started to be free in their hearts and their actions, then their actual freedom from British authority would follow.
So freedom begins with soul authority, soul power. This is the soul authority that Jesus had and the soul authority that following Jesus offers us. Jesus was a satyagrahi and by following him, we too can be satyagrahi. Gandhi describes the satyagrahi as one “who is ever forgiving, who is always contented, whose resolutions are firm… who is not afraid of others, who is free from exultation, sorrow and fear… who has a disciplined reason… who is pure.., who has dedicated mind and soul to God…” The satyagrahi is the one who is ready to fight evil with good, who is able to fight hate with love, who counters the demonic with the divine. The satyagrahi is the one whose sole authority is soul authority.
And when your sole authority is soul authority, then all of the other authorities have no power over you. The scribes can’t control you. The religious leaders can’t control you. The government can’t control you. The culture can’t tell you who you are. The media can’t control what you think. All of the demonic forces are seen for what they are and they lose their authority over you.
So the question for us today is what are the demons that we face. And how will free our selves from them? What are the fascinating lies that have power over our lives – that are gaining momentum, demanding more and more, appealing to our deepest needs and desires? I’ll leave that question for you to answer. I’m sure you see some demonic forces at work in our culture and in our world. I’m sure you also encounter some demons in your own personal life. There are lies that you’ve taken for truth that need to be cast out. What are the demons that we face today? That’s an important question.
But let me end by encouraging you to be strong and courageous. You and I, can have this soul authority, too. By dedicating ourselves – heart and mind – to God, we too can find this power within ourselves to face the demons, to rebuke them, and to cast them out.
 Daniel Day Williams, The Demonic and the Divine, (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990), p. 3.
 Ibid., p. 5.
 Ibid., p. 7.
 Ibid., p. 9.
 Ibid., p. 10.
 Mahatma Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi, ed. Louis Fischer, (New York: Vintage Books, 1962), pp. 62-62.